The International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) promotes the study of all aspects of hydrology;

the International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Oceans (IAPSO) promotes the study of the physical sciences of the oceans and the interactions taking place at the sea floor, coastal, and atmospheric boundaries,

and the International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior (IASPEI) promotes the study of earthquakes and other seismic sources, the propagation of seismic waves, and the Earth's internal structure, properties, and processes.

These international associations are constituent associations of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG), which is dedicated to advancing, promoting, and communicating knowledge of the Earth system, its space environment, and the dynamical processes causing change.